What is diazonium salt?

What is diazonium salt?

Diazonium salts (‘di’ implies ‘two’, ‘azo’ indicates the presence of nitrogen and ‘ium’ refers to the cationic nature of the compound) are the category of compounds that are organic and generally has the chemical formula R-N2 +X where, X represents an anion (organic or inorganic like Br , Cl, BF4, etc.) and R denotes either an aryl or alkyl group.

Another definition of diazonium salts is that they are a class of chemical compounds that all have the same R-NH2+X function group. In R-NH2+X, R is an organic group. For instance, the alkyl or aryl groups. Diazonium salts can also be used to make azo compounds by reacting with other aromatic compounds.

When hydrochloric acid is present, aryl or alkyl primary amine is taken and added to the solution along with sodium nitrite to form diazonium salts. For example, a reaction where diazonium salts are involved is the Sandmeyer reaction: Copper (I) chloride is used in the production of an aryl chloride.

Diazonium salts, therefore, possesses two nitrogen atoms in which one of them is charged. Some examples of diazonium salts are C6H5N2+HSO4– (benzene diazonium hydrogen sulfate), C6H5N2+Cl (benzene diazonium chloride), C6H5N2+HSO4 (benzene diazonium hydrogen sulfate) etc.

General description of diazonium salts:

  • Usually, the ‘X’ in diazonium salt chemical formula represents Br, Cl, BF4. The presence of the diazonium group or the N2+ is what determines the name of the salts.
  • The parent hydrocarbon from which these salts are formed is suffixed with the suffix diazonium, which is then followed by the anion X, such as bromide.
  • Diazonium salts have a very versatile combination of inorganic and organic components. The common way of representing this compound is R−N2+X. The ‘X’ indicates an ion while the ‘R’ represents an organic aryl group.

How are diazonium salts prepared?

  • Dissociation or diazotization is the process in which organic compounds like aromatic amines are converted into diazonium salts.
  • Under room conditions, diazonium salts are observed to be highly unstable and hence it is prepared only when it is needed to be used so that storing may not be necessary.
  • The common procedure of preparing diazonium salt is by letting aromatic amines react with nitrous acid. Diazonium salt forms when nitrous acid reacts with aromatic amine (aniline) and this formed salt is called benzene diazonium chloride.
  • Due to the high toxicity of gas emitted by nitrous acid, it is mostly prepared when the procedure is performed, that is, in situ and this is done by allowing mineral acid to react with sodium nitrite (NaNO2).
  • Temperature is another important factor that keeps the formation of the product from disrupting. Generally, 5° C or below is the temperature that keeps the diazonium salt stable.
  • If the required temperature is not maintained, the diazonium compound will surely decompose and emit N2 just as the compound is formed.
  • The chemical reaction of NaNO2 with aniline along with HCl (Hydrochloric acid) which results in the formation of benzene diazonium chloride, is shown below:

2HCL + NaNO2 + C6H5NH2 NaCl + C6H5N2+Cl + 2H2O

The diazonium group has a wide range of applications. This mix of organic and inorganic components has been a godsend for scientists in a variety of fields, from dyes and pigments to the production of different organic molecules. Diazonium salts are extremely useful in many fields.

Characteristics and properties of diazonium salts or compounds

  • Diazonium salts are soluble in water.
  • The nature of diazonium salts is ionic.
  • Aryl diazonium salts are colourless crystalline solids.
  • Though benzene diazonium chloride is water-soluble, it can react when the solution is heated.
  • Water does not dissolve benzene diazonium fluoroborate. At room temperature, it is fairly stable.

Importance and uses of diazonium salts

Diazonium salts break down when exposed to violet or ultraviolet light implying that the compound is extremely sensitive to light. This behaviour gave way to these compounds being popularly used in copy papers. Diazonium compounds are common reagents in the synthesis of chemical molecules, particularly aryl derivatives.

  • Diazonium compounds are useful for dyeing making them abundantly used in the pigment industry for dyeing fabrics.
  • They may be used to make a wide range of organic compounds, particularly aryl derivatives.
  • They are very useful in the reproduction of documents due to their nature of breaking down when exposed to ultraviolet and violet light.
  • For the preparation of aryl iodides and fluorides, direct halogenation is not a suitable option. It is impossible to substitute a cyano group for the nucleophilic substitution of chlorine in chlorobenzene. Diazonium salts, on the other hand, may readily be used to make cyanobenzene.
  • They’re utilised to introduce, –NO2, –Br, –Cl, –F, –I, –CN, –OH, and groups into the aromatic ring as intermediates.
  • Preparation of substituted aromatic compounds by the method of direct substitution is not possible in benzene. For these types of compounds, the diazo group is replaced.
Tips on How to Get CISSP Online Exam Question & Answers

Pass CISSP Exam Online & Pay Us After You Pass

CISSP Online Exam Question & Answers

Get this absolute fact and appreciate all benefits associated with testing cissp online exam questions. Revive all great things long since forgotten by the humanity. ISC certified information systems security professional on the other hand facilitates you to access top IT training courses from the best renowned institutes of the world. All courses are designed in a manner that students can understand every aspect of information technology and utilize it to its highest potential. They are designed in such a way that they facilitate you to study efficiently and understand every minute detail of information systems without any ambiguity.

When you study effectively, you also get to know all hidden factors of cissp online exam questions and find solutions to them. This is possible only when students take up online exams. It is because online exams help you know each and every tiny detail of examination. This further enables students to work more flexibly on preparation for exams and understand every minute detail of each test. Taking up exam online not only helps you prepare effectively but also saves a lot of your precious time and money.

Nowadays many websites and computer programs offer students to take up their exams online by paying a nominal fee. Many computer programs will provide students with practice exam question papers that help in learning the real meaning of each and every exam question. One can also gain a lot of experience by making practice papers of every practical exam he/she is preparing for. Not just this, one can even download or print these exams online and study from home.

Tips on How to Get CISSP Online Exam Answers

Questions appearing in different kinds of exams are printed on the pages of test pages. It is important to note that while reading these questions the student should concentrate only on the main idea of the question. So, instead of reading the words like “How do you” in between the question marks one should read the question in its entirety. Reading the questions backwards also helps in improving your reading comprehension skills. The best way to study is to spend more time on each question rather than wasting time on those that do not carry any importance.

There are many online cissp training centers offering online exams. It is important that before selecting a particular training center make sure to check their reputation. You can read reviews and testimonials on online forums, blogs, discussion boards etc.

Students should keep in mind that practice makes perfect. They should spend the maximum number of hours in practicing for exams. If they don’t have enough time to devote towards practice then they should not waste time on those exams. Taking up practice exams should be done either by private individual or in groups. Private exams should be taken only when you are confident about your examination.