##### The Global Business Simulation Strategy Game – Glo – Bus Quiz Answers

If you’re in a business strategy class, you may be taking the Global Business Simulation Strategy Game, or “Glo-Bus” for short. You will most likely take two quizzes in this course, Glo-Bus Quiz 1 and Glo-Bus Quiz 2. Both quizzes will go over the basics of the game and especially quiz 2 can have very difficult questions. Many of the questions have a financial basis. Here is a sample question that you will most likely get.

Given the following data from the Financial Statements:

Income statement data Quarter 1

(in 000s)

Sales revenue \$50,000

Operating Income \$14,400

Net Income \$9,555

balance sheet data

Total current assets \$70,000

Total assets \$149,000

Total current liabilities \$26,000

Long-term debt (withdrawal of credit line) \$33,000

Total Equity \$90,000

Other financial data

Depreciation \$4,000

Dividend payments \$2,250

Based on the above figures, the company’s capital structure consists of what percentages of debt and equity? (These percentages are one of the components used to determine a company’s credit rating, as explained on the Help screen on the GSR Comparative Financial Performance page.)

20% debt and 80% capital or 20:80.

27% debt and 73% equity or 27:73.

35% debt and 65% equity or 35:65.

37% debt and 63% equity or 37:63.

None of those.

So to answer this question, we need to look at this income statement and conclude what is debt and equity.

Total Equity is listed at \$90,000, so that’s easy.

But the really hard part is figuring out what debt is. Believe it or not, but current liabilities are not part of “debt.” And that’s a mistake people make.

So the debt is simply long-term debt of \$33,000. But then what?

To calculate the correct ratio, the formula for debt ratio = debt / (debt + equity)

[And for note the equity ratio=equity/(debt+equity)]

Or therefore 33,000/(33,000+90,000)=.268 or what is equal to 27%. Therefore, the debt ratio is 27% and the balance of 73% is principal.

The correct answer is the second!

##### Why are my employees not working? 3 easy ways to win the fight against "presenteeism"

What is the biggest productivity challenge small business owners and leaders need to solve this year? presentism. This newly coined term means that there is a Body in the building, but the mind it is elsewhere. For a variety of reasons, your talented employees are showing up at the workplace, but they aren’t producing results. Here are 3 ways you can win the fight against presenteeism in your small business.

It has been reported that presenteeism accounts for 80 percent of lost productivity and costs organizations in the United States more than \$105 billion a year. Clearly, it is a problem to have a group of employees who are not working, even though they are “at” work.

Some claim that the average worker wastes more than two hours each day, that’s a loss of 10 hours per employee each week! So if employees are at work, but not working, what exactly are they doing? Well, they are on the Internet, distracted, chatting with colleagues or rearranging their desk.

As a leader or manager in a small business, you they can Win the war against presenteeism. Consider implementing the following 3 changes to permanently resolve the presenteeism challenge.

1. Reward for results, not for time.
2. When you switch to rewarding people for the results they produce, rather than the time they put in, presenteeism will decline. By giving employees control over how long they work, they’ll be more productive, work more efficiently, and get work done quickly so they can leave and get on with their lives. They’ll stop wasting time at the office on Facebook, spending more time in the break room, or having an extra-long lunch.

3. Provide unlimited paid time off.
4. Many people come to work when they shouldn’t: they’re sick, have a serious family problem, or are just having a bad day. Their mind is not focused on the job, they are only operating at a fraction of their normal capacity and are more prone to mistakes. However, they felt they had to come, they didn’t have a sick day, no paid time off, and they didn’t want to take a vacation day. Another way to solve the presenteeism challenge is to offer all employees unlimited time off. If you have implemented the first suggestion, the focus of your business has shifted from time invested to results produced. If your employee needs a day off, they can take one. As long as they do their job, they control their time. When you provide unlimited paid time off, if an employee is sick, dealing with a family crisis or feeling exhausted, they can take a day or two to themselves, no questions asked. As long as results are achieved in a timely manner, there’s no need to force employees to show up for a day’s work when their minds are elsewhere. Let them save work for a day when they know they can focus and be productive.

5. Talk to your employees about their work on a regular basis.
6. Don’t wait until the year-end performance review. Talk about how things are going, what aspects of their work are working and what are not, and provide feedback on the results they are producing. Involve your employees in decisions about how their work will be done, who they will work with, and what activities are required. Research has shown that when you set reasonably challenging goals and provide clear and frequent feedback, employees will find almost any job attractive. Talk to your employees about their work on a regular basis and they will be more aware of the work they are doing.

Presenteeism is a serious, growing, and costly problem for small businesses. To maintain a healthy workplace, increase worker productivity, and prevent unnecessary errors, a solution must be found. When you reward results, rather than time, provide unlimited time off, and talk to your employees regularly about their jobs, you’ll successfully solve the challenge of presenteeism.

##### Are you a fan of caffeine?

Caffeine is one of the most researched and studied drugs in history and is found in numerous beverages on the market today. However, just because caffeine is readily available, does that mean it’s good for you?

Why do we drink caffeine in the first place?

For most of us, it’s because of the quick surge of energy it provides and for others, they literally can’t seem to function without it. Caffeine provides that adrenaline rush that we would otherwise miss out on.

Although caffeine can improve your performance by increasing alertness and speeding up your reaction time, it also has some negative effects, such as increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety.

Do we really need it?

Chances are, we wouldn’t need the artificial boost if we, as a culture, weren’t sleep deprived and overworked. If you would allow your body to sleep when it needed it and eat a healthy combination of foods throughout the day, you would have enough fuel to last through the day. But for most of us, this isn’t the case for one reason or another, so we resort to the quick fix.

Now, I’m not suggesting that you stop drinking caffeine cold turkey. First, let’s examine how much caffeine per day you are consuming. This task may cause you to reconsider the amount of stress you are placing on your adrenal glands and other bodily functions to compensate for the caffeine ingested, especially since 250 mg of caffeine per day is considered the upper limit before incurring potential health risk factors. .

Here is a list of the most popular caffeinated drinks.

All bottled drinks are 12 oz and coffee and tea are 8 oz.

High (50mg+)

Starbucks Coffee (tall/big) 279/372

Dunkin’ Donuts (medium) 143

Coffee (drip) 115-175

Rock Star Energy 160

Espresso (2oz) 77-100

Coffee (instant) 65-100

180 Energy 90

red bull 80

Amps 75

shake 71

pepsi one 56

mountain dew 55

Moderate (25 – 50mg)

Diet Coke 47

Table 47

iced tea 47

Black Tea 40-60

dr pepper 41

Orange Sunkist 40

Pepsi 38

Classic Coke 34

Snapple Teas 32

Diet Pepsi 31

instant tea 0

Low (less than 25mg)

cream soda 22

green tea 15

hot cocoa 14

brisk lipton 9

Decaffeinated Coffee 2-18

object 0

7-UP 0

Sierra Mist 0

root beer 0

SOURCES: National Soft Drink Association, US Food and Drug Administration, University of Florida College of Medicine

Hopefully, this list gave you a better idea of ​​how much caffeine you’re consuming each day. Your best bet is to limit your caffeine intake to no more than 1 highly caffeinated beverage per day, preferably consumed in the morning. After that, I recommend switching to green tea or another low-rated caffeinated beverage if water isn’t enough.

Good luck, and remember that healthy lifestyle changes take time to become part of your routine. If you can start cutting back on your unhealthy habits, you’ll soon start to feel the benefits of living naturally.

I’ll toast to that; )

##### How to write an amazon bestseller

As of this writing, my first book is ranked #8 in its category, with 7 x 5* reviews (I took a screenshot to prove it). I’m excited! I never imagined that it would rank at all!

Amazon’s sales rank is something of a mystery. I’m oversimplifying, but it seems to be based on number of sales per hour, weighted to fit long-term blockbusters like Harry Potter.

Okay, so I don’t know how many other books are in the “sales and marketing” category, or how long it will stay in the top 10 (it’s in and out at least three times so far, to my knowledge, not that I follow it endlessly! ). And to be fair, I still don’t know if that represents sales of 2,000 books, 20 books, or 2 books! My printer, Lulu, prints books on demand (minimum quantity 1) and should send “creator earnings” to my PayPal account after 6-8 weeks.

That said, I think it’s still an impressive achievement. In fact, it’s an underestimate, since I also sell direct copies, so they are not counted in the Amazon ranking.

‘The Little Fish Guide to DIY Marketing’ is my first foray into publishing – it’s a compilation of the tips and stories that have been featured in my newsletter over the past few years. The book was available starting in June 2010, but people only started buying it when it “launched” on Amazon in October. It’s like it suddenly became a reality as soon as it became available on Amazon.

This is how I did it.

Let’s assume you already have a good idea, a title, a target market, some writing skills, and someone to design your book for you. Even though the content took me about two years to complete, fitting it in with everything else I do, I found it to be the easy part!

get testimonials

When selling anything, what others say is more convincing than what you say yourself, so I knew my book needed testimonials to print on the inside and back cover. I sent PDF copies to volunteers, but found that less than half of them actually contributed feedback (hopefully due to lack of time, not because they didn’t have anything nice to say!). Of course, it’s hard to ‘chase’ people when they don’t get paid, so it caused another delay in the process. Eventually, I collected some lovely reviews and was finally ready to print.

The next stage was a great learning process, with a number of key decision points along the way.

First, you need to decide whether to find a publisher/agent or self-publish.

If you want to find a traditional publisher/agent to take care of everything for you (and take a percentage), your best bet is the latest copy of the Writers and Artists Yearbook (available at all good bookstores) and there are plenty of other resources online.

If you need help with your content, there are several book coaches/midwives, freelance book publishers, and short-run printers/publishers for you to choose from, for a fee (email me for a list of recommendations).

Despite warnings online about their deteriorating customer service, I opted to self-publish through Lulu.com. I also found an email address for someone there which was tremendously helpful (although there was always a backlog in the exchange of messages between UK and US time zones).

If you do the same as me, then you have to decide whether to post on your own or let Lulu be your editor. Being a bit of a control freak, I decided to become a publisher as well as an author.

To do so, you must purchase a block of Nielsen BookData ISBN prefixes (minimum quantity is 10, currently costing GBP 111.86 including VAT). You have to download, print and fill out a 4 page form, but it’s not hard (except you have to figure out the meaning of unknown words like ‘title verse page’ – it’s the inside page that goes back to the title page and includes publisher’s name, copyright and ISBN details).

Search “nielsen isbn” for all you need to know.

Be careful, it takes a while for your ISBNs to be issued, so you can’t rush this part of the process. Please also note that as a publisher you are also required to send a copy of the printed book to Nielsen and the British Library’s Legal Deposit Office within one month (they send you the instructions along with the ISBN information) . If/when you make changes, you must publish another edition of your book with a new ISBN, so make sure everything is perfect before you approve your final proof.

Tip: If you are also producing an eBook version, you need your own ISBN. When setting your price, keep in mind that print books are not subject to VAT, but e-books are.

designing the cover

Next decision: Are you making your own cover design or are you using Lulu’s cover design wizard? Happily, I have access to a talented graphic designer who worked with me on my own beautiful book cover. Lulu automatically produces the barcode for her ISBN, which she then downloads for inclusion on the back; it should go in the bottom right corner with a “quiet zone” around it. Between us, we designed the cover of my book (using royalty-free images, of course) and uploaded the print-quality artwork to Lulu.

To make a one-piece (wraparound) cover, you need to download Lulu’s “Cover Image Templates” for the front and back for your book size and overlay them on the left and right sides of your design. Adjust the page size and margins to match. Use Lulu’s ‘Column Width Calculator’ tool and add that measurement in the middle.

Design of the inner pages

Compared to that, managing the inner pages was relatively easy: they were already designed and saved in PDF format (individual pages, not spreads). I just had to make sure the title page and the title verse page were included in the front (which changed all my page numbers) and upload the file. If you don’t have access to design skills, you can upload Word files instead, and Lulu will convert them to PDF. You then need to request a ‘trial’ of the book and ‘approve’ it when it’s finally perfect (I’ve done this multiple times and sold the trial copies at a discount).

Tip: Authors pay a little less when ordering their own books, and Lulu has monthly specials that may be worth the wait.

Get to Amazon

My next decision was easy: I wanted the book on Amazon, so I paid Lulu about GBP 50 for Global Reach Distribution. (If you choose Lulu as your publisher, you get a free Extended Reach Distribution instead.)

Here, I ran into a snag. I originally designed my book in A5 size, with beautiful white paper, but it turns out you can only have a few sizes to lay out, and A5 isn’t one of them. I had to change the layout to fit US business size. I just added larger margins and reuploaded. The problem is that it couldn’t be that size on white paper, only cream.

I found that Lulu’s explanation of sizes is not very consistent. In some places they refer to the name of the size, in others they mention inches, and in others, centimeters.

For more information, search Lulu Help for ‘Which books are eligible for distribution’ and ‘What paper will my book have for the cover and interior?’ The information you need is scattered throughout your online Help, so email me for my handy rundown of paper sizes and colors that are eligible for Lulu’s Global Reach distribution.

Once all the sizing, paper, and layout have been worked out, it takes 6-8 weeks for your book to appear on Amazon. I found that almost unbelievable in this internet age! And then, I found out that it takes a while to turn on ‘Look Inside’, too, even after you’ve uploaded another PDF of your entire book to Amazon. But eventually, my book was online, and sales suddenly started picking up.

Tip: Other sellers may offer your book as “used” or “like new” at a discount. If you don’t cut your margin too much, you might as well set yourself up as a discount seller to compete with those sellers.s.

As a self-publisher, you have to do your own marketing. I invited everyone who bought the book to check it out online (happily everyone has loved it so far). I did online marketing at no cost, using social networking sites like Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook. For example, I ran a ‘retweet’ contest on Twitter that promoted it to new followers. I also did local public relations and advertised it in my newsletter. And finally, I keep a small stock of books to sell at events I attend (such as training courses and local networking meetings). People love the glossy cover and sometimes even ask me to sign my book, just like a true best-selling author!

Disclaimer: Please note that these instructions apply to the UK. Even if you do exactly what I did, I can’t promise that your book will become an Amazon bestseller.

Tip: You can track sales at Novelrank.com (it’s fascinating, but don’t get too hung up on it!)

Starting a business requires potential entrepreneurs to make hundreds of different decisions before opening their doors to customers. One of the most important decisions is selecting the right legal structure for your company. How you choose to organize will affect your taxes, personal liability exposure, and fundraising options.

Sole proprietorships are the most common arrangement for people who work alone. This structure is a popular option because it is the easiest to organize and does not require any filing with the state. However, one of the biggest disadvantages of the sole proprietorship is that the entity does not exist apart from the owner. Consequently, the owner is personally responsible for all financial obligations and damages resulting from lawsuits filed against the business. Another disadvantage is that it can be difficult to raise capital. Banks are reluctant to lend to individual businesses, leaving owners to rely on home equity loans or borrowing from the family.

For businesses with more than one owner, a partnership might be a good arrangement. Each partner contributes capital, labor or expertise to make a profit. The partners share in the profits, but as a sole proprietorship, they are also personally liable for debts and damages. One way partners can reduce personal exposure is by forming a limited partnership. This form consists of general partners who make decisions and assume the risks and limited partners without control in the operations in exchange for reduced liability. Tax treatment is one of the main reasons this arrangement is selected. Profits and losses are passed on to individual partners.

Limited Liability Companies, or LLCs, are a type of structure that is becoming very popular. This structure creates a separate entity from the owners. As a result, the owners are not responsible for any debts or judgments against the business. Unlike a limited partnership, all members are free to participate in management and enjoy protection against personal liability. LLCs also enjoy going through taxes. However, the tax rules for these structures are complicated. The amount of paperwork is a major hurdle, and members must file articles of organization with the Secretary of State or sign an operating agreement.

Selecting the organization for your business is one of the most important decisions you and your partners will make. Research all available options and seek the advice of experienced professionals before making your selection.

##### What are penny stocks and how do they work?

You may have heard many people talk about penny stocks and by investing in these stocks they were able to make huge profits. You may be interested in investing in penny stocks to double your money fast. But, before blindly investing in penny stocks, it is very important that you clearly understand what penny stocks are and how you can invest wisely in them, so that you can earn a lot of money through this simple investment.

Introduction to penny stocks

The general description or sentiment about penny stocks is that it is a stock that trades for less than \$1. But, this is not the true definition of a penny stock. They are trading stocks on the stock market, and the biggest difference you would see in penny stocks and blue chip company stocks is in the price of the shares. Penny stocks are simply the share prices of smaller companies, small tech companies, mining companies, and start-ups. The price per share of these smaller companies is very low compared to multinational companies. Many people interested in trading stocks invest their hard-earned money in stocks. All you need is a few hundred dollars to get started with a lot of pennies in development.

Are there any benefits to investing in Penny Stocks?

Once you know what penny stocks are all about, the next question that comes to your mind is the benefit you can get from investing a small amount of money in small company stocks. Well, the great thing about these small stocks is that if they do experience a price move, this move will often be huge and dramatic in percentage terms. If you are looking to earn a good income through your investments, then you need to work with the percentages and invest in penny stocks that have a good chance of earning on percentages.

The best way to start investing

If you have a conversation with leading financial experts and stockbrokers, then they will all wish that investing in penny stocks is the best way to enter the world of stock investing, solely for the purpose of learning. You will learn the tricks of stock and share trading by investing in penny stocks. They are the cheapest way to invest in stocks as you can even find certain stocks that are valued at 40-60 cents and you can even invest in hundreds or thousands of stocks without breaking the bank. You can also learn the nuances of stock trading through these small stock investments.

The idea that you are trading cheap stocks should never cross your mind when trading stocks. These smaller value investments can change the fate of your life in the shortest possible time, as the value of any one of them can easily skyrocket very soon. As only a few traders will invest in this type of stock due to its cheap value, there is a chance that it will double, triple or even quadruple its initial value in the space of a few hours, or sometimes even a few minutes.

There is also a risk factor

If you can make big profits from penny stocks, the flip side is that you might as well lose all your money on a cheap stock you’ve bet on. There is risk involved in any type of investment, not to mention investments in pink sheet stocks. So, if you are interested in trading these stocks safely, then you should rely heavily on microstock analytics pickers. They are the perfect stock pickers who will be able to easily anticipate the behavior of the stock market and their main target is just cheap stocks.

invest with caution

Although penny stocks offer a large portion of the gains, these stocks are quite vulnerable to manipulation. If you are not very careful and cautious in choosing the right stocks, you can easily lose all the money you had invested. It is important that you find real, honest small organizations to invest your money in, as such investments will offer you tons of potential to earn handsomely. If a company seems to have a bright future and is a promising small organization, then you can very well invest in its small shares to get a great return on your investment. All you need to do is take the time to research the internet for such promising companies and you are sure to get paid well.

Tips for investing in penny stocks

The following are the tips you can use when you are thinking about investing in penny stocks.

• Do thorough research and proper planning before investing in a company’s pink sheet stock.
• Invest in companies that have a large average trading volume.
• Since penny stocks are highly volatile, always have an entry and exit plan ready and stick to that plan always.

• Trading penny stocks will be your guide to learning about the stock markets and how they work.
• It is very easy to start trading penny stocks as there is no need to make a huge investment.
• You have the opportunity to earn more money in the shortest possible time by investing in mini stocks.
• These micro-stocks can also grow to be traded on the stock market as mid-cap stocks, thus multiplying their value many times over.

What I think

It’s important that you invest in microstocks with a little caution and careful planning. Make sure you don’t invest in stocks of companies that often go up and down, and this is especially important for anyone new to small stock trading.

##### What are fixed assets?

In case the asset is not expected to last more than 1 year, it is not a fixed asset. These resources are expected to be used for more than 1 accounting period. As far as financial accounting is concerned, future economic resource is generally understood to be any object, factor or characteristic of the person, business organization or company, with financial liquidity. There are a number of procedures for calculating depreciation. It can be calculated using the straight-line method or the accelerated depreciation method. Several people know the term ‘depreciation’. In company Earth, however, depreciation is actually related to another notion. The most common depreciation technique is called straight-line depreciation, that is, the initial price of an asset divided by its useful life.

The importance of fixed assets

Fixed assets are collectively known from time to time as plant. They are not easily sold. They lose value as they age. All assets vary with respect to their liquidity. These economic resources can last for many years and this is the area where depreciation comes into the picture. These must be sold, and a hasty sale could result in a loss. A fixed asset is not expected to be consumed or converted into cash before a time period of only one year.

Assets are among the main things that need to be analyzed to specify the value of a business. Before doing this, the asset must be given a salvage value. These resources play an extremely instrumental role in the manufacturing process of the organization. A long-term asset is not very simple. A non-current asset consists of fixed assets. There are many types of economic resources that a company possesses.

These are the most common classifications used:

Furniture and accessories

Buildings

computer equipment

Automobiles and Vehicles

construction in progress

Land

Earth improvement…

Tenant improvements.

Also, there is some asset, which has no industry value but has a recurring expense. Some assets are not depreciable as they do not deteriorate over time. Newer assets have a short useful life. Because of this, it should be considered as present resources and included in the corporation’s working capital accounts, much less a fixed asset. It’s simply morally wrong to begin with, and secondly, it doesn’t just jeopardize your existing assets. To acquire this, an individual needs to divide recent assets by recent liabilities. It is primarily believed to be a short-term asset for virtually any organization.

##### Why do you need IT services?

Behind every successful business, there is a dedicated team and a well-planned strategy. Furthermore, it is difficult to find successful businesses that do not use technology.

Do you have a business and are you looking for the factors that increase the productivity of your business? Having a well-qualified and professional staff is widely seen as the way to improve the productivity of a company or organization; but for the similar concern, technological tools also play a vital role in such concern. Here are the reasons why you, as a 21st century business owner, cannot afford to ignore IT services:

Custom software development:

It is widely accepted that custom software development inevitably increases the productivity of companies in almost all fields. When you develop bespoke software for your business, this will dramatically increase not only the productivity of your business, but also improve the accuracy of your work.

Website development and management:

Whether you are selling your services or products to customers online or not, you need a website to showcase your business and communicate with your consumers. Therefore, it is essential for a business owner to have a website; In addition, it is also essential that you frequently update and modify the website. Apparently, we need a website development and management service at some point. Hiring a dedicated employee for this would not be a smart choice unless you have an internet-centric business such as an e-commerce store. You can purchase IT services from a dedicated IT service provider who will take care of all your technology needs.

Computer help service:

When using technological tools, it is possible for any part of the tool to go haywire. If you have a deadline, what do you do: try to get Google to fix it, or let the professional handle it? Most of the IT companies provide 24/7 technical support services to their customers so that they can solve their problems without any delay.

In this era, no business can survive without the use of technology. At some point, they must need the help of IT services to improve their productivity. IT services offer a strong return on investment, the facilities you get are always worth more than the price you pay. However, you should not blindly choose an IT service provider; Instead, you need to do some research and understand the company’s capabilities.

##### 5 ways to lose 8 ounces a day

What if I told you to join a top weight loss program and gave you false expectations? Lose 30 pounds in 30 days. That’s a pound a day, what if after the first week you’ve only lost 2 pounds? Maybe you were busy and couldn’t do all the meal suggestions, maybe you were being asked for a lot of money so you skipped a meal or two, or maybe you walked in saying this is it. I’ve tried 10 programs, none of them worked and if this doesn’t show me any results, I’m done.

It’s the same with becoming a millionaire, which is why many people give up on their dreams because they set unrealistic goals and quit before they understand why. Wouldn’t you agree that before you become a millionaire you have to earn your first \$100 and then \$1000, after that you get better, learn more, gain more knowledge and then earn \$10,000 and so on?

So let’s start at the beginning. If you’re reading this article, you probably have a good general idea about how to lose weight, but you can’t put all the pieces together. What if you first set a realistic goal of 4 ounces a day for the first week and 8 ounces a day for the next 7 weeks? That would equate to about 26 pounds of weight loss after the first 2 months x 3 = 78 pounds in 6 months and he started with a simple goal of 4 ounces a day.

5 simple ways to lose 4 ounces a day

low calorie intake

less carbs

Eat more fruits and vegetables

Less sugar

working out

These things that we already know help now is the time to put everything into action and make a game plan for the week, starting with one day.

Beware of Energy Crashers that give you a boost with sugar, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup. These things will only give you a crash and burn in the middle of the day, as they don’t benefit your energy levels. I recommend eating plenty of whole wheat and grains along with fruits and vegetables. If you are going to drink an energy drink to increase your energy levels, I recommend using one that has FOS (Fructooligasaccharide).

FOS has been a popular dietary supplement in Japan for many years, even before 1990, when the Japanese government set up a “Functionalized Food Study Committee” of 22 experts to begin regulating “foods of special nutrition or functional foods” that contained the fortified food categories. (eg, vitamin-fortified wheat flour), [2]and is now becoming increasingly popular in Western cultures for its prebiotic effects.

FOS can be considered a small dietary fiber with (like all fibers) low caloric value. The fermentation of FOS results in the production of gases and acids. The latter provides some energy to the body.